Chemical burns are more complicated than simple thermal burns. Because of the nature of the chemicals themselves, the damage to the tissue is different, so it has its characteristics in emergency treatment. Strong acids such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, aqua regia (hydrochloric acid and nitric acid). Carbolic acid, etc., when it hurts the skin, it causes different damages due to factors such as concentration, fluid volume, and area. The contact of the acid with the skin immediately causes the coagulation of the tissue protein to dehydrate the tissue and form a thick sputum. The formation of thick sputum can prevent the acid from continuing to penetrate into the deep tissue, reducing damage and is extremely beneficial to the health of the wounded.
Burns of hydrochloric acid and carbolic acid, the wound surface is white or grayish yellow; the wound surface of sulfuric acid is brown; the wound of carbonic acid is yellow.
If it is soaked through clothes, it should be removed immediately, and the wound surface should be washed repeatedly with plenty of water. After sufficient rinsing, it can also be rinsed with a neutralizing agent, a weakly alkaline liquid such as baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) or soapy water. Carbolic acid burns are neutralized with alcohol. Nitric acid burns are neutralized with a negligible solution and the effect is better. However, if there is no neutralizing agent, it is not necessary to force it, because sufficient water washing is the most fundamental measure.
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