First, the whole body performance
1. Shock: The main cause is bleeding at the fracture site, especially pelvic fractures, femoral shaft fractures, multiple fractures, etc., the amount of bleeding can be as high as 2000ml or more. Severe pain or complicated visceral damage can also cause shock.
2. Fever: Generally, the body temperature is normal after fracture, but some fractures with large bleeding volume may have low fever when absorbed by hematoma, usually not exceeding 38 °C. Patients with open fractures should be considered for high fever.
Second, local performance
1. General performance of fracture
1) Local Pain Pain and obvious tenderness often occur in the fracture. Squeeze or slam from the distance to the fracture, and indirect tenderness can also be caused at the fracture.
2) Swelling and ecchymosis When the fracture is caused by local vascular rupture and edema after soft tissue injury, the affected limb is swollen, and in severe cases, tension blisters may occur. If the fracture site is superficial, the hematoma hemoglobin may decompose after purple, cyan or yellow subcutaneous ecchymosis.
3) Dysfunction The limb loses some or all of its mobility due to pain and swelling at the fracture site.
2. Proprietary signs of fracture
1) Malformation Due to the displacement of the fracture segment, the injured part loses its normal shape, mainly characterized by shortening, angulation, and rotational deformity.
2) Abnormal activities In normal conditions, the parts of the limbs are inactive, and abnormal activities occur after the fracture.
3) Bone rubbing or bone rubbing After the fracture, the fractures can produce bone rubbing or bone rubbing when they are rubbed together. However, when checking the body, you should not repeatedly try to verify the symptoms, so as not to increase the pain and local soft tissue damage.
As long as one of the above three proprietary signs appears, the fracture can be diagnosed. However, when these three signs are not seen, the fracture is not excluded. For example, incision fractures, fractures, and the above signs may not occur. When there is soft tissue embedding between the fracture ends, there may be no bone rubbing or bone rubbing. When a deformity occurs, it should be differentiated from joint dislocation. The three signs can only be taken care of during the examination, and should not be intentionally caused to occur, so as not to increase the patient's pain and shift the stable fracture; or to damage the blood vessels, nerves and other soft tissues at the sharp fracture end.
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