A fracture is the interruption of the integrity or continuity of the bone. There are three common classification principles:
First, according to the integrity of the skin and mucosa at the fracture site:
1. Closed fracture: The skin or mucosa of the fracture is intact, and the fracture end is not connected to the outside.
2. Open fracture: The skin or mucous membrane of the fracture is ruptured, and the fracture end is connected to the outside. The wound at the fracture may be caused by direct violence such as a knife wound or a bullet wound from the outside to the inside. It may also be caused by indirect violence resulting in a fracture, and the sharp fracture end is pierced from the inside or outside by the skin or mucous membrane. Such as pubic fracture with bladder or urethral rupture, rectal rupture caused by tail fracture is an open fracture.
Second, according to the degree and shape of the fracture is divided into:
1. Incomplete fracture: Partial interruption of the integrity and continuity of the phalanx. According to its form, it can be divided into:
1) Fracture fracture: bone fracture occurs, no displacement, visible fracture line, more common in the skull, scapula.
2) Green branch fracture: more common in children, bone and periosteal part of the fracture, may have an angular deformity is not obvious, but because the child's bone is flexible, sometimes only manifested as bone splitting, and when the green branches are broken Similar to the name.
2. Complete fracture: The integrity and continuity of the phalanx is completely interrupted. According to the direction and shape of the fracture line, it can be divided into:
1) Horizontal bone: The fracture line is nearly perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the backbone.
2) Oblique fracture: The fracture line is at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the backbone, and can be divided into long oblique and short oblique fractures according to the angle.
3) Spiral fracture: The fracture line is spiral.
4) Comminuted fracture: The bone is broken into three pieces or more. If the fracture line is T-shaped or Y-shaped, it is also called T-shaped or Y-shaped fracture.
5) Insertion fracture: the fracture ends are interspersed with each other and more common in the metaphyseal fracture. That is, the cortical bone of the backbone is inserted into the cancellous bone of the ankle.
6) Compression fracture: The bone is deformed by compression, and it is more common in cancellous bone such as calcaneus and vertebra.
7) Depression fracture: The cortical part of the fracture is deeply depressed, which is more common in the skull.
8) Separation of the epiphysis: The fracture passes through the epiphysis, and the broken end of the epiphysis can be attached with a certain amount of bone tissue.
Third, according to the stability of the fracture is divided into:
1. Stability fracture: refers to a fracture in which the fracture end is not easily displaced or is not easily displaced again after reduction. Such as the above fracture fracture, green branch fracture, transverse fracture, insertion fracture.
2. Unstable fracture: refers to a fracture that is easily displaced or displaced after the fracture. Such as the above-mentioned oblique fracture, comminuted fracture, spiral fracture and the like.
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