The purpose of fracture first aid is to rescue the patient's life, protect the affected limb, and transport it safely and quickly in a simple and effective way in order to get proper treatment.
1. Assess the general condition. First assess the patient's general condition, with or without shock and important organ damage such as the brain, chest, and abdomen. If you are in a state of shock, you should immediately open the intravenous channel infusion, if necessary, blood transfusion, to resist shock, to treat life-threatening vital organ damage as the primary task. At the same time, attention should be paid to insulation to minimize movement. If the combined brain injury is in a coma, care should be taken to keep the patient's airway open.
2, wound treatment. Open fractures often have wound bleeding, and most of them can be used for hemostasis by pressure bandaging. If a large blood vessel ruptures and bleeding is difficult to stop bleeding with a pressure bandage, a tourniquet can be used to stop bleeding. The preferred inflatable tourniquet is safer and the pressure and start time must be recorded during operation. Generally, the upper limb is about 1 hour, and the lower limb should be loosened for about 1.5 hours. If healing is needed, the wound should be compressed and the tourniquet should be relaxed for about 10 minutes before inflation to prevent ischemic necrosis at the distal end of the affected limb. The wound is covered with a sterile dressing and, if unconditionally, wrapped with a cloth that is as clean as possible to reduce recontamination. If the fracture end has poked the wound and is contaminated, but does not compress the vascular nerve, it should not be immediately reset, so as not to bring the dirt into the deep part of the wound. It can be reset after debridement.
3, fracture fixation. Proper fixation is an important measure in the treatment of fractures. The purpose of fracture first aid fixation is to: 1 reduce the activity of the fracture end, reduce the pain of the patient; 2 avoid the side damage of soft tissue, blood vessels, nerves or internal organs during transportation; 3 facilitate transport. All patients suspected of having a fracture should be treated as a fracture. Fixed splints can be used for fixing, such as unconditional, wood, wooden sticks, branches, etc. can be used locally. Or the upper limb fracture can fix the affected limb to the chest, and the lower limb fracture can bind the affected limb to the contralateral healthy limb. If the fracture has obvious deformity, it can be properly fixed after the affected limb is reset, but secondary nerve damage should be avoided due to blind reduction.
4. Rapid transfer. After initial treatment, the patient should be transferred to a hospital with similar conditions and ability to treat it as soon as possible.
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